Green ammonia

Traditionally, ammonia (NH3) is produced through the Haber-Bosch process, which reacts nitrogen separated from the air with hydrogen derived from fossil fuels at very high temperatures and pressures. This process is energy-intensive and produces 450 million tons of CO2 annually.

Green ammonia, on the other hand, is produced using green hydrogen and energy-efficient processes. Producing green hydrogen is as simple as electrolyzing water using power that is generated from renewable sources. The green hydrogen is then combined with nitrogen from the air to produce ammonia via energy-efficient processes.

Green ammonia startup

We research early-stage startups that are developing promising technologies to produce green ammonia, such as electrochemical synthesis and biosynthesis of ammonia.

Green ammonia applications


Ammonia is a key ingredient in fertilizers. Over 80% of global ammonia is used for fertilizer production. Green ammonia can provide a sustainable alternative to conventional ammonia, reducing the carbon footprint of the agricultural sector.

Hydrogen carrier

Green ammonia can play a crucial role in the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a clean fuel, but it’s difficult to store and transport. Ammonia, however, is easier to handle and can be used as a carrier for hydrogen. The hydrogen can be extracted from the ammonia and used as a fuel, while the nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere.

Energy storage

Green ammonia can act as a form of energy storage. Electrolysis can be used to make green ammonia when there is extra electricity from renewable sources. After that, the ammonia can be saved and used to make electricity again when needed.

Maritime fuel

The shipping industry is actively exploring green ammonia as a potential fuel. Ammonia has a higher energy density than hydrogen, making it easier to store and transport. It can be used in internal combustion engines and fuel cells, making it a viable option for replacing heavy fuel oil in ships.

Fuel cell electrical vehicles

There is ongoing research into the use of green ammonia as a potential fuel in fuel cells to power heavy trucks. Ammonia-fueled vehicles are being developed by companies such as Hydrofuel, Hyundai, and Mitsui O.S.K. Lines.

Green ammonia market

In 2023, the global green ammonia market was valued at approximately $0.3 billion. It is projected to reach $17.9 billion by 2030, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 72.9% from 2023 to 2030.

The market is driven by the demand for decarbonization efforts, eco-friendly fertilizers that improve soil quality, and government support and favorable regulations promoting sustainable energy.

However, the high cost of installing infrastructure for the production of green ammonia and the cost of electrolyzers are key restraints for the market.

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